The LEPL "Institute of Micro- and Nanoelectronics" (IMNE) was established in December 28, 2011. It was founded on the basis of the department of semiconductor microelectronics of the Faculty of Physics of Iv.Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University and the Research Institute "MION". The Institute employs 45 people, 90% of whom worked in the Research Institute "MION". Currently the IMNE has 26 full time academic staff, 10 freelance students (2 doctoral students, 2 postgraduates and 6 bachelors), and, in addition, several students who undergo training. In Georgia, this institution is practically the only structural unit where semiconductor technology of integrated circuits and devices for micro, opto- and nanoelectronics is sufficiently fully represented. In the institute, open research is also conducted.
The IMNE employs highly qualified specialists and has unique technological and control equipment. R&D is carried out on semiconductor materials (gallium arsenide and other A3B5 compounds, silicon, germanium and their modifications) in order to create a basic technology for the following applications:
• microelectronic products for commercial radio electronic equipment;
• ultrathin metal films and semiconductor oxides (Al, Ti, Hf, Zr, Y, SiO2, xGa2O3 + yAs2O3) to be used in micro- and nanodevices as active and passive elements and an active element - memristor.
Technological installations make it possible to develop and study the following technological processes:
• deposition of ultrafine (nanosized) metals and their compositions by the following methods: electron-beam evaporation (Ni/Ge/Au/Ni/Au, Ti/ Pt/ Au, Y, Hf and refractory metals) and thermal evaporation (Al, V/Au ), vacuum-resistive deposition (Al, Cu, Cr, Au, etc.), magnetron sputtering (Si, Ge, Hf, Ag, Ti, Ta, etc.) and electrochemical evaporation (Cu);
• low-temperature formation of dielectric layers by thermal evaporation (SiOx), magnetron sputtering (GaN, AlN, FeN, TiN, HfO2, TiO2, ZrO2), catalytic plasma anodizing (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, V2O3, HfO2, ZrO2, GaAs intrinsic dielectric, etc.);
• formation of self-ordered nanoporous aluminum oxides by electrochemical anodizing on different substrates in oxalic acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid solutions at room temperature for different applications;
• formation of nanofilms by the sol-gel method for different applications.
• selective dry and wet etching;
• contact photolithography;
• formation of local insulation layers by ion implantation of impurities with subsequent annealing.
A special place is occupied by the technology of manufacturing and studying new materials, in particular, GaN, AlN, SiC, Si <Ge>, which are distinguished by high radiation and thermal stability. These technologies include innovative elements.
To obtain new materials, a molecular-beam epitaxy system is also available. An important R&D component is modeling of active and passive circuit components with subsequent simulation, which is carried out with the help of special software (OptiSpice, ADC, etc.).
R&D of semiconductor products is carried out using the following instrumentation and methods:
• to measure the parameters of semiconductor materials: van der Pauw method, contactless microwave frequencies, as well as by means of capacitor-voltage and current-voltage characteristics;
• microscopes, profilometers, thin film thickness meter, mass spectrometer to control technological processes;
• meters for measuring static and dynamic super-frequency parameters of active and passive elements;
• measuring optical properties (absorption, transmission, reflection, photosensitivity) of semiconductor structures in the range 0.2-4.0 μm at a temperature of 77-300 K;
• X-ray structural analysis.